Commissioned by the World Resources Institute (WRI), Deltares did extensive research on groundwater resources in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region in 2016. This research contributed to a MENA Regional Water Security Assessment for the World Bank.
Using the PCR-GLOBWB model developed by Utrecht University, Deltares calculated two indicators of groundwater-related risks and their implications for some socio-economic aspects. The two indicators assessed are groundwater stress and groundwater level decline per province between 1990 and 2010. These results were combined with data about gross domestic product (GDP), population, and percentage of irrigated agriculture from groundwater to quantify the impact of groundwater scarcity on each of these socio-economic aspects.